Freesia - planting and growing at home and outdoors
Freesia is an amazing bulbous plant native to South Africa that grows among shrubs and on the sides of water bodies. Because of its characteristic aroma, it is also called Cape lily of the valley. The flower got its name in honor of Friedrich Vries, a German doctor and botanist. For more than 200 years, freesia has held an honorable place among flower growers. The peculiarity of freesia is its delicate flowers of various colors, exuding a delicate, very pleasant aroma that relieves depression and relieves stress. Many perfumers use the freesia note to create perfume fragrances. It is quite easy to grow freesia on your plot or on the windowsill of an apartment if you know certain nuances of not only planting planting and proper care, but also storing the bulbs of this perennial plant belonging to the Iris family, which includes quite a few species - 20. You can grow carry out both in the open field and at home.
Growing freesia as a garden crop and indoor plant
Gardeners and lovers of indoor flowers, seeing freesia bulbs on sale, do not risk buying them, believing that this is a capricious plant that requires special growing conditions. But is it? Probably, it will be a discovery for many that freesia can be grown, by creating certain conditions and properly storing the bulbs, all year round, and there is no difference where it is grown: on a windowsill or a flower bed.
Blooming freesia - a fragrant plant
Indeed, for the successful vegetation of a plant, it needs a specific temperature regime, but in a city apartment and in an open field, freesia successfully takes root in central Russia, gives a green mass and pleases with flower stalks of extraordinary beauty, exuding a real spring aroma.
The value of freesia lies in its fragrant bright peduncles
The timing of the flowering of freesia depends solely on the timing of its planting. For example, to get the first bud by March 8, the bulbs must be planted in December or early January. But in order to enjoy the aroma and bright flowers of freesia in summer, it is planted in the ground no later than April, previously grown in a pot at a certain temperature.
Bouquet of freesias in a vase
This amazing plant can live on your windowsills and as a house flower for a while. The fact is that the value of freesia is in its peduncles, but the foliage and shape of the plant is completely unremarkable - it is somewhat remotely similar to the foliage of young garlic, i.e. there are no decorative qualities in the leaves. After the end of flowering, lasting a month or more, the plant takes on its most ordinary appearance. In addition, in this phase of development, freesia enters a state of dormancy, and its bulb ripens in a pot, gaining strength in order to please its owner with a new luxurious flowering during subsequent planting.
Freesias of different varieties are suitable for growing on a windowsill
Freesia types and popular varieties
Gardeners most often grow in flower beds or in pots hybrid freesia (Freesia hybrida), bred by crossing refracted and Armstrong freesia (Freesia refracta and Freesia armstrongii). All of these 3 species are the parents of dozens of varieties.
- a plant reaching a height of 65–70 cm. Flowers (scarlet, pink or red) bell-shaped, fragrant, collected in panicles of 3-5 pieces. The tube is white with yellow spots. The leaves are xiphoid, long. The varieties of this freesia bloom from May to June.
Cardinal is the most popular variety of this species. The flowers of the Cardinal are non-double red with a yellow spot, 70 cm high. The leaves are xiphoid, the pistil is blue, the stamens are yellow, and the palniki are purple. One adult bulb produces three peduncles, each with up to 11 flowers.
Freesia variety Cardinal
Fragrant freesia yellow with an orange spot
Freesia white, or refracted, or broken (Freesia refracta)
differs in miniature forms (no higher than 40 cm). The stems are thin, spreading, the inflorescence is a paniculate spike, in which there are 2–5 flowers of white or yellow-orange color. Blooms in April.
- freesia Alba (Freesia refracta var. Alba) - snow-white large flowers with purple strokes on a yellow background inside the throat;
- freesia fragrant (Freesia refracta odorata) - yellow freesia, in the inflorescence of 3-7 flowers with an orange spot at the base. Perceptibly smells like lily of the valley.
The Alba freesia variety is distinguished by its snow-white color.
Freesia hybrid (Freesia hybrida)
combines the best qualities of its ancestors. Its bush is tall (up to 1 m) and highly branched, the brushes consist of large (5–7 cm in diameter) fragrant flowers of purple, crimson, yellow and other shades, both monochromatic and two-colored.
- grade Ballerina - freesia white with yellowness at the base, corrugated petals. The pharynx is also white, with a yellow stripe. In inflorescences up to 12 flowers 5.5x6.5 cm in size. Peduncles 25–30 cm high. Possesses a delicate aroma;
- grade Rose Marie - peduncles 20–25 cm high, in inflorescences up to 7 flowers 4.5x4.5 cm of bright crimson color, in the lower part of the flower - white with crimson lines;
- grade Pimperina - peduncles are low (15–20 cm), in inflorescences up to 7 flowers 6x5.5 cm, petals are slightly corrugated, red with dark red edges. The bottom of the petals is yellow with red strokes. The aroma is inexpressive.
The Pimperina variety has a weak aroma, but a spectacular appearance of flowers.
Rosemary has become quite rare on the market.
Crimson vibrant freesia shade with crimson inlays at the base
Video: Types and varieties of freesias
All types described can be either simple or terry. The petals of a simple freesia are located in one row, and for a terry one - two and three rows. Freesia of any kind and variety grows equally in pots and in a flower bed. Therefore, there is no need to look for freesia for distillation in a pot, but it is still worth considering the size. For example, any sort of refracted (broken) freesia, due to a low peduncle, will look neat in a pot, and in the garden, with proper support, you will be delighted for a long time with varieties of hybrid freesia with a long peduncle and large flowers.
Terry freesia of different varieties
Reproduction methods used for garden and indoor flowers
Freesia reproduces in two ways: daughter bulbs and seeds. The first method is the fastest and least troublesome in obtaining flowering. Seed propagation is also possible, but it is very time consuming and difficult.
Ground and underground parts of freesia
Features of propagation by bulbs
Flowering is the beginning of the bulb's accumulation of strength in order to give a bountiful harvest next time in the form of flowering. At this time, babies begin to grow near the mother's bulb - from one piece or more. During the growing season, the mother bulb is completely reborn. Those. in fact, you get not the same bulb that was planted, but a completely new one - replaced. When the flowers begin to lose their decorative qualities, they must be cut off so that the plant will direct all its forces to the growth of the mother and daughter bulbs, and not to the formation of seeds. When the last flower has wilted, the plant is left dormant for another week, then dug up, cut off the tops, left to dry in a dry and well-ventilated room, and then as described in the section on storing the bulbs.
Freesia bulb with baby
The babies are separated from the mother's bulb, and they are laid separately. In the first year, the daughter bulbs will not bloom. They need to build mass. They are planted in a similar way as the mother bulbs, but in a separate place. That is, a separate area is allocated in the garden, where daughter bulbs are planted. They remain in the soil until the tops start wilting, after which they are dug up, washed, etched, dried and sent for further storage, as described below. Babies ripen in the garden at the same time as the mother's bulbs. Having gained strength and increased in size, they turned into adult bulbs, and in the next season they will give abundant flowering.
Abundant flowering of freesia in the garden in summer
In a closed ground, everything is the same as when describing planting in the garden. The difference fluctuates only in the timing of planting, which the apartment grower determines for himself. There is nothing more beautiful than blooming freesia in the winter-spring period, so the planting of adult bulbs should be in October. At the same time, it is necessary to plant daughter bulbs in a separate bowl, and care for them in the same way as for adults, realizing that when the mother's bulbs begin to bloom with might and main, the bowl with the children will be filled only with greens, which will gradually begin to fade (simultaneously with the beginning of the wilting of the peduncle and tops of mother bulbs).
In this state, a pot with children will look like
A short step-by-step scheme for propagation with bulbs:
1. Wait until the mother bulb begins to bloom and, as the flowers twist (wilt), cut them off.
Peduncle image after flowers wilting
2. After the tops have wilted (September-October), dig up the bulbs, arrange them in a row, without breaking the tops, in a warm, but well-ventilated room for a week.
Dug up freesia bulbs with tops
3. Peel the foliage from the bulbs and separate the babies. They are easily torn off with your fingers without damaging the mother's bulb. Pickle in any fungicide according to the instructions.
Washed freesia bulbs
4. Leave for storage for two months in a warm place, where the temperature is at least 25-30 degrees. Only under this condition does the bud of a peduncle form in the bulb. For example, you can put the bulbs in a linen bag and hang them on the side of the battery. Not on the battery itself, otherwise the bulbs will simply dry out, namely on the side pipe. Place a container with water on the floor under the bag, which will provide the necessary moisture to the bulbs. High temperature (30 degrees) and high humidity (70%) are the main storage conditions.
Thus, you can warm up the freesia bulbs, preparing them for further storage.
5. After that, you can move the bulbs in an open container, paper or linen sachet for further storage in a room where the temperature is stable at least 20 degrees.
Freesia Bulbs Prepared for Storage
6. For an apartment: daughter bulbs are planted at any time from August to November.
For the garden: plant the bulbs in a separate place in the garden in early April. If the temperature exceeds 17 degrees, the leaves of the plant lengthen, and the peduncle decreases, or may not appear at all. Thus, the plant should germinate before the appearance of the peduncle (5 weeks from the moment of planting) in a cool, light and high humidity environment. This rule also applies to growing freesia in an apartment in a pot.
7. Both apartments and for the garden: wait for the yellowing of the foliage and dig up the bulbs.
8. Repeat points: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Now (after a year) you can admire the flowering of daughter bulbs.
Few people resort to this method, since its implementation will take a long time (it takes a year from planting seeds to the appearance of peduncles), but it is quite feasible. Sowing seeds in a pot is best done at the beginning of spring - the period when all nature awakens.
Sowing seeds is as follows:
1. In March, seeds soaked in water for a day are sown in a nutritious and moderately moist mixture of humus, peat and sand in equal parts (or a special substrate for bulbous plants), sprinkling them with a layer of earth no more than two centimeters. The pot must have good drainage from expanded clay. Freesia does not tolerate stagnant water.
A pot filled with drainage and earth
2. The container is covered with cling film or glass, opening twice a day for ventilation and condensation removal. Seeds should germinate at room temperature 20-25 degrees.
The greenhouse effect is obtained when the container with the planted seeds is covered with glass or foil
3. After 10 days, the first shoots appear. During this period, the soil should not be allowed to dry out by spraying it from a spray bottle, often ventilate the container with seeds, and after a month, remove the glass or film altogether.
The stage of picking freesia seedlings
4. At the beginning of May, the entire container will be filled with greens, and it is time for picking seedlings. To do this, take a more spacious container and plant the seedlings at a distance of 3-5 centimeters. Freesia has delicate and fragile sprouts, so you need to be careful when picking. A container with seedlings can be placed on the balcony, but protected from gusts of wind.
The first shoots of freesia
5. When the temperature drops to 10 degrees Celsius, the container is brought into a warm room and regular watering is continued, feeding the seedlings twice a month with any complex fertilizer for flowering plants. You cannot overfeed freesias - they react badly to excess fertilizers.
Abundant freesia greens ready for peduncle emergence
6. In February, freesia for such a long wait and careful care will generously endow you with long flowering and bright colors, as well as the most beautiful and delicate aroma. It should be borne in mind that an adult plant needs support.
Lush bloom of freesia in a pot
7. After the plant has faded, the peduncles are cut off, leaving the bulb in the pot to ripen. Watering must be reduced, and by the middle of summer it must be stopped altogether.
Bulbs after cut wilted tops
8. In August, remove the bulbs from the soil and leave to dry, as described above. For winter forcing, these bulbs can be planted in early October.
Bright colors of summer and spring aroma in frosty winter can only be given by freesia
Garden freesia: planting bulbs and care according to the seasons
There is no concept of indoor freesia or garden freesia. This is one plant that, under certain conditions, can be grown both in a pot and in a garden.
When and how to plant plants
In central Russia, freesia bulbs are planted in early or mid-April in a place where there is no direct sun, i.e. in partial shade. Freesia is photophilous (it needs light 12 hours a day), but it cannot stand the bright sun. If you plant the bulbs later, there is a high risk of getting too weak peduncles or not seeing them at all. Freesia germinates, gains a green mass and throws out a peduncle at a temperature of 15 degrees Celsius, but abundant flowering should occur at a higher temperature - 25 degrees.
Blooming white freesia in the garden
Some growers suggest first sprouting freesia at home, before its final planting in a flower bed, but this step is not required in the agricultural technique of this plant. Starting planting, it is advisable to clean the bulbs of scales and pickle in a solution of potassium permanganate for 30 minutes (for 2 liters of water at the tip of a knife) or any fungicide according to the instructions, because if this is not done, adult plants can be infected with thrips or fungal diseases. Damaged or stained bulbs are discarded. Next, the bulbs are planted in a pot at the end of February in fertile soil (as suggested by experienced gardeners), or immediately in the ground no later than mid-April.
Etching the bulbs in a weak solution of potassium permanganate will provide them with protection against fungal diseases and rot.
Video: preparing freesia bulbs for planting
The planting scheme is as follows: depth - 3 cm, distance between plants - 3-5 centimeters, row spacing - 15 centimeters.
It should be borne in mind that freesia does not tolerate stagnant water, so the plant needs to provide good drainage. To do this, draw a furrow 15 centimeters deep, scatter expanded clay on its bottom in 1 layer, cover it with food soil, place the bulbs on it with sprouts up (or lay out already sprouted plants with leaves with a lump of earth), and sprinkle it with earth to the end of the furrow.
Planting pre-germinated freesias in open ground
Video: planting freesia in open ground
How to care during growth and flowering
If freesia is planted in fertile soil, you do not need to overdo it with top dressing - freesia does not react well to excess fertilizers, but after germination the plants need to be fed with ammonium nitrate (20 grams per bucket of water), and then, if desired, fed once or twice a month plant fertilizer for flowering.
Weeding and loosening is another important consideration in growing freesia. During the period of active growth and the appearance of a peduncle, freesia is watered very abundantly. The earth should not dry out, but stagnation of water should be avoided.
Abundant flowering of freesia in the garden
Freesia is a fragile plant, its peduncles easily break under the weight of the flowers, therefore, as soon as the leaves begin to disintegrate, they need to be supported with a taut twine.
Freesia twine example
If a high temperature has risen outside, and the air humidity has dropped significantly, freesia is sprayed from a spray bottle. It is important to do this in the evening or very early in the morning: the leaves must have time to absorb moisture.
Sprinkling freesia or spraying provides the necessary moisture to the plant
Freesia can be affected by diseases and pests that are characteristic of gladioli: spider mites, thrips, aphids, fusarium, scab and various rot. Plants affected by fungal diseases are immediately removed from the flower bed. Disinfection at the beginning of storage and before planting solves all these problems. And insecticides cope with pests at an early stage of detection.
How to prepare a plant for winter + storage of bulbs
As the flowers drop and the tops get stuck, watering is reduced, and then they stop altogether, leaving the bulbs until the first possible frost in the ground (early October). In central Russia, freesia does not withstand wintering in the ground. In the south, bulbs can be left to winter in a flower bed, but it is still very risky. If you decide not to bother with the digging, then freesia must be covered with a layer of mulch of 20 centimeters from straw or fallen leaves, but this may not save the bulbs from frost.
The most reliable way to preserve the bulbs until next season is to dig them up, cut off all the leaves, rinse, place in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for an hour and leave to dry in a dry room for up to 5 days.
Placing freesia bulbs for further storage
To prevent the bulbs from getting lost in the ground, and it was easy to remove them from there, there is one tricky, but very convenient trick: the bulbs are planted in boxes with holes all over the surface, and then they are dug into the ground. These boxes are used to deliver citrus fruits to supermarkets. Firstly, by planting the bulbs in boxes, you will provide the plants with good drainage by scattering expanded clay to the bottom, and do not clog the soil in the flower bed with it. Secondly, with the onset of cold weather, the box is easily removed from the flower bed, and it will not be difficult to find all the mother and daughter bulbs in it to the last.
Using the example of tulips planted in boxes, you can see how bulbs are planted in boxes that are buried in the ground
The storage of the bulbs takes place at a temperature of 20-25 degrees and at high humidity (60-70%) - this is the most important condition for the formation of the future peduncle in the bulb. Mother and daughter bulbs must be separated from each other immediately. The mother's bulb will give color in the next season, and the daughter one in a year, but on condition that it is planted at the same time as the mother's, but in a separate place. To feel the breath of spring in winter, some of the collected mother bulbs can be planted in a pot on your windowsill. This is called the spring forcing of freesia.
blooming freesia in a pot on a windowsill
Solving the problems of growing freesia in the garden
Freesia has one peculiarity: it must go through a long rest period of 3 months at high humidity and temperature. If this condition is violated, the bulb has not gained enough strength, therefore, it will not sprout at all, and when you dig it, you can find the formation of several daughter onions.
The reason why freesia does not bloom is also not observing the temperature regime. And such a plant will not be helped by any feeding, transplanting or anything else. As a rule, sellers store bulbs in the refrigerator, so they need to ensure that they warm up. In addition, freesia will not throw out the peduncle if the entrances have already appeared, but there was a sudden bad weather, and the temperature dropped below three degrees Celsius. Also, at too high a temperature in the first 5 weeks, freesia refuses to bloom. Mid-May is late for planting freesia in the garden.
If the freesia leaves lodged, then the temperature outside is too high. The reason for the yellowing and drying out tips of the leaves of the plant is excessive or insufficient watering. At low humidity, the plant also gives a signal with yellow tips of the leaves. In addition, a large amount of dressing may not have the best effect on the condition of the plant.
Freesia at home: caring for a flower that grows at home on a windowsill
Any kind of freesia can be grown in a pot, but hybrids are best suited for this purpose. It is quite easy to grow a plant in winter that exudes purity, freshness and crazy colors of summer, knowing a few subtleties.
Pink freesia in a pot will relieve winter depression
How to plant freesia in a pot
Before planting freesia in a pot, the bulbs that have passed the period of correct temperature storage are peeled from the husk to avoid the occurrence of fungal diseases and kept for an hour in any disinfecting solution (fungicide). Planting freesias and obtaining flowering indoors can occur in 3 different seasons: normal flowering (from mid-August to mid-October); earlier flowering (from mid-May to mid-August); late flowering (mid-November to mid-February).
Young Freesia seedlings in a pot require special attention in the first 5 weeks
Video: freesia two weeks after planting
Important steps for planting freesia in a winter forcing pot:
- In October, expanded clay is placed on the bottom of the pot without holes, but if the pot has good holes for draining excess water, then this is not necessary.
- In a ready-made moisture-absorbing substrate for bulbous or home-made soil from peat, leaf, humus and sod soil, the bulbs are planted to a depth of 3 cm and a distance of 3-5 cm. There is no need to cover the pot with foil.
- Place the container with the planted bulbs in a well-ventilated area, where the temperature does not exceed 15 degrees.
- After the emergence of seedlings, feed the plants with a complex mineral composition, and then repeat the feeding twice a month.
- Establish a support for emerging leaves.
- After flowering, cut off all the tops and gradually stop watering, leaving the bulbs to ripen.
Table: Conditions for keeping freesia depending on the season: lighting, humidity, temperature
Features of watering, feeding
Freesia is sensitive to watering. You cannot overfill it, as well as underfill. The soil is moistened as it dries, but not completely dry. It is best to water the freesia from below by placing the pot with young shoots in a container into which to pour water to the bottom.
It is necessary to feed freesia every two weeks with a standard mineral complex for flowers. Too frequent feeding of freesia is harmful. She will tell about it, showing yellowing leaves.
The solution to frequently occurring problems with indoor freesias: treatment of diseases and pests
Table: pests peculiar to freesia
Untreated freesia bulbs can be affected by various types of rot or fungal diseases, of which there are a great many. To avoid diseases, it is enough to process the bulbs in antifungal drugs after digging and before planting, and also to remove the husks from them without fail.
Photo gallery: pests characteristic of freesia
Table: diseases peculiar to freesia
Fusarium and scab defeat on the example of gladiolus bulbs
Useful reviews about growing freesias in a pot and outdoors
Freesia is a graceful plant that many associate with spring. Unfortunately, this flower has gained fame as a capricious plant, but this is a misconception. Freesia is really sensitive to temperature conditions during bulb storage and growth, but it is quite possible to grow it both in the garden and in a pot on the windowsill, observing certain rules. It is better to plant freesia in the garden in April, and in the spring in October. So you will surely be able to enjoy the long flowering and unforgettable aroma of this delicate plant.
My name is Elena. Working with texts is probably my calling, and working in the garden and vegetable garden is a balm for the soul.
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- with a day of light lasting at least 12-14 hours
- protected from direct sunlight and wind
- at an air temperature in the range of 18-22 ºC.
Violations of light and temperature conditions, long periods of heat and drought, lead to the formation of empty, non-opening buds on freesia or a complete rejection of flowering.
The place for planting is chosen so that the brittle stems of the plant do not suffer from the wind, and the delicate flowers do not burn the summer sun. Already at an air temperature above +22 ºC, the biological rhythm of the plant is disrupted, and this is reflected in the quality of flowering.
When grown outdoors, freesias are better acclimatized in soil with neutral or slightly acidic reactions. In areas with heavy, dense soil, it is deacidified and mixed with sand, peat. Soils poor in organic matter and minerals must be fertilized.
Plants are not hardy. In Russia, they must be dug up for the winter, and taken out into the ground when the threat of recurrent cold weather and frost on the soil has passed. If planting in the ground takes place in May or early June, freesia bloom begins from the second half of July to the end of August. However, this is only valid for the middle lane. To see freesia flowers when planting and nursing in Siberia, not bulbs are transplanted into the ground, but plants already grown in a room or greenhouse.
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- Landing: in open ground from the second decade of May. For distillation by January - at the end of August in a pot.
- Digging: October.
- Storage: one month after digging at 25 ˚C, then before planting at 10 C.
- Bloom: in the garden - August-September.
- Lighting: light partial shade.
- The soil: loose, well-drained, neutral or slightly acidic.
- Watering: during growth and flowering - abundant and regular, then watering is gradually reduced.
- Top dressing: in the garden: on seedlings - nitrogen fertilizers, then twice a month with phosphorus and potash.
- Reproduction: seed and vegetative (corms).
- Pests: thrips, spider mites, aphids.
- Diseases: fusarium, scab, gray, dry, penicillous, hard and sclerocial rot.
Freesia (lat.Freesia), or freesia - one of the most charming bulbous plants grown both in the garden and at home. Freesia is a genus of herbaceous bulbous perennials of the Iris family (Iris), which includes about 20 species. The most famous is the hybrid freesia, which appeared as a result of the crossing of several species about a century ago. The native land of plants is South Africa, where they grow on wet shores and among shrubs. They were named after Friedrich Vries, a German botanist and physician.
Freesia is elegant, graceful and tender, it exudes a pleasant aroma, reminiscent of the smell of lily of the valley, and for this it is sometimes called "Cape lily of the valley". Thanks to all these qualities, it is now at the peak of popularity among flower growers as a cut crop.
Features of growing freesia
Freesia is very sensitive to conditions of detention and requires careful implementation of all the rules of agricultural technology. But if you provide the plant with everything you need, it will delight you with flowers both in a city apartment and in a garden. Freesia can bloom beautifully indoors even in winter.
Soil composition for freesia
Indoor soil is prepared from the following components:
- turf land
- leafy land.
All components must be mixed in equal proportions and a small amount of sand and charcoal must be added. The acidity of the soil should correspond to a pH of 6–6.5 (slightly acidic reaction). In a flower bed, freesia grows normally in simple garden soil. The soil in a pot or flower bed should be loose. It is imperative to arrange drainage in the pot.
It is better to collect leafy soil for planting freesias in a park or in a deciduous forest.
The grower must remember that varieties that come from broken freesia require support and a garter, since they have weak stems.
Freesia is a thermophilic tropical beauty. For the best development and beautiful flowering, she needs a temperature of 20-25 degrees. But at the end of the growing season, it is necessary to reduce the temperature to 15 degrees for some time (up to 2 months), since the flower develops a state of rest during this period.
Watering and moisturizing
In a flower bed, the soil must always be moistened. During the active period of growth, freesia should be watered every day, while remembering that excessive moisture can cause rot in the bulb. In the room, the plant must be watered no later than 5 pm, so that the soil in the pot dries up by the end of the day. In addition, it is very useful to spray the leaves and stems with the "fog" in the evening. After the cessation of flowering with the onset of a dormant period, the intensity of watering must be reduced, and then stopped altogether.
Freesia does not like stagnant air, so leave enough space between the plants. They should not interfere with each other.
Plant freesia plants in a flower bed at a distance of at least 5 cm
Fertilizing and feeding freesia
For normal growth and excellent flowering, freesia needs fertilization. As soon as the first leaf appears, the plant must be fed with ammonium nitrate - 20 grams per 10 liters of water. After 10-15 days, when freesia has already been planted in a permanent place, it is fertilized with a composition of 40 grams of superphosphate and 20 grams of potassium salt per 10 liters of water. It is impossible to increase the dose of fertilizer! Freesia is fed only with liquid solutions, dry mixtures are not used. After the cessation of flowering, fertilizing should be continued, observing the previous regime, since the bulbs remaining in the ground continue to develop.
Freesia is a light-loving plant, and at the same time, it does not tolerate direct rays of light. For 12-14 hours daily, the flower likes to sunbathe, but with shading. When illuminating in winter, a transparent cloth or white paper filter should be used.
Freesia needs good lighting, but it needs to be kept out of direct sunlight.
When growing in a room, the pots with freesia should be taken out to another room while airing. And for outdoor maintenance, the site must be protected from drafts.
Growing freesia from seeds
This breeding method is within the power of experienced growers, although beginners can also try:
- The tray or any flat container must be filled with a layer of substrate 2 centimeters thick, but the soil must not be compacted.
- You can soak the seeds in a growth stimulator by placing them in a warm place for a day.
- Seeds are sown on the surface of the substrate, sprayed with warm water (it is not advisable to water with a stream).
- Top up with a layer of soil 0.5 centimeters thick.
- Next, the tray should be covered with glass or foil and put in a warm place.
- The glass / film must be lifted daily and the planting must be ventilated. Spray them with warm water if necessary.
- When seedlings appear, increase the airing time, and after half a month, remove the cover.
- When the seedlings grow up, they need to be planted at a distance of 5 centimeters from each other.
Seeds can sprout in 10-12 days, but it must be borne in mind that the germination rate of freesia is low.
Freesia from seeds is grown by professionals, but beginners can also do this.
Growing freesia in the house
In an indoor flower garden, freesia can bloom even in January, if you create all the necessary conditions for it. For this you need:
- Treat the bulbs with Azotobacterin, lowering them for half an hour in a solution of 0.5 grams of the drug per 10 liters of water.
- Place drainage stones in a small flowerpot with a diameter of 15 centimeters.
- Pour soil there, composed of a mixture of sand, turf, humus in equal amounts, with the addition of charcoal. It is not necessary to compact the soil mixture.
- Plant 5 freesia bulbs to a depth of 5 centimeters.
Freesia bulbs are planted in a small pot filled with nutrient mixture
When shoots appear, pots with freesia are brought into a warm room.
You can successfully grow freesias in your home flower garden if you create the right conditions for them.
If a grower wants freesia to bloom in January, he must plant it in September. However, in some varieties, flowering begins much later, after 5-6 months.
Growing freesia outdoors
Many gardeners successfully grow freesia in flower beds. She feels great in areas well protected from wind and drafts. Prefers light partial shade and well-drained soil. The preparation of freesia tubers for planting consists of several stages:
- In early April, overwintered tubers must be peeled and placed for half an hour in a 0.2% Fundazole solution to protect against fungal diseases.
Freesia bulbs need to be peeled and soaked in an antibacterial solution
Sprouted bulbs can be placed in a greenhouse or on a windowsill
When planted in open ground, the distance between freesia bulbs is 5 centimeters
Freesia planting video
Storing the bulbs
If the rules for storing the bulbs are not followed, then, unfortunately, you will not have to wait for good results. It is important to maintain this storage mode: room temperature 20-25 degrees, air humidity 70-80%.
A container of water should be placed under the net or perforated container in which the freesia tubers are stored if the air in the room is not sufficiently humid.
At least once a month, you should sort out the tubers and remove the spoiled ones. Some growers recommend storing freesia bulbs in dry peat. In areas with warm winters, tubers can be left in the ground, but be sure to cover them with a thick layer of dry leaves or other insulation.
It is necessary to very clearly determine the planting date, because exactly one month before that, the tubers are transferred to another room with a temperature of 10-15 degrees. The deadlines cannot be violated.
Important: before planting, freesia nodules need a rest for at least three months.
Video: preparing freesia bulbs for planting
Diseases and pests of freesia
Freesia is not very susceptible to diseases and pests. Most often, plants get sick when the owner does not provide them with proper care. The main method of plant protection is the careful observance of all requirements.
Table: ways to combat freesia diseases and pests
To reduce the risk of diseases, it is imperative to carry out pre-planting treatment of freesia tubers.
When cultivating freesia, the problem of lack of flowering often arises. The reason may be simple - this is not the age of the bulb for flowering, or it has not passed the required three-month exposure. In this case, at the end of the season, the bulb must be dug up, processed accordingly and sent for storage.
Another reason is the violation of the temperature regime during storage. In this case, the plants grow actively, buds appear, but then most of them fall off. Such tubers should also be dug up and stored.
Freesia in landscape design
It is in this industry that freesia has long gained its popularity. This phenomenon is associated with its main advantages:
- the decorativeness of the flowers and the shape of the plant allows it to be used not only in solo plantings, but also to make beautiful compositions from its different varieties or combine with other flower crops
- the versatility of the planting site helps to green even the concreted areas of the garden: you can plant the bulbs in beautiful flowerpots, containers
- a wide range of species and varieties contributes to decorating even an alpine slide with freesia (low-growing varieties of broken freesia are perfect)
- the smell exuded by freesia flowers made it a "star" among those who like to make aromatic beds.
Thus, there are really many directions in landscape design in which freesia planting is appropriate. It is for this reason that this flower culture quickly spread not only among amateur flower growers, but also people who are professionally involved in floriculture.